SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2021
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
2.SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”).
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Arch Therapeutics, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiary, Arch Biosurgery, Inc., a biotechnology company. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
Management is required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Guidance
Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement” was issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in August 2018. The purpose of this amendment in this Update is to modify the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820. The amendments in this Update are effective for public business entities for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company adopted ASU 2018-13 during our first quarter of fiscal year 2021, and the impact was considered immaterial on our consolidated financial statements.
ASU 2020-06, “Debt with Conversion and other Options (subtopic 470-02) and Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40)” was issued by the FASB in August 2020. The purpose of this amendment is to address issues identified as a result of the complexity associated with applying generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liability and equity. The amendments in this Update are effective for public business entities for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2023. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not believe that this guidance will have a material impact on its consolidated results of operations, financial position or disclosures.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company had no cash equivalents as of September 30, 2021 and 2020.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. The cost of inventories comprises expenditures incurred in acquiring the inventories, the cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing them to their existing location and condition. The cost of raw materials, goods-in-process and finished goods are determined on a First in First out (FiFo) basis. When determining net realizable value, appropriate consideration is given to obsolescence, excessive levels, deterioration, and other factors.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash. The Company maintains its cash in bank deposits accounts, which, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. The Company believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the related asset. Upon sale or retirement, the cost and accumulated depreciation are eliminated from their respective accounts, and the resulting gain or loss is included in income or loss for the period. Repair and maintenance expenditures are charged to expense as incurred.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment when circumstances indicate the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable in accordance with ASC 360, Property, Plant and Equipment. For assets that are to be held and used, impairment is recognized when the estimated undiscounted cash flows associated with the asset or group of assets is less than their carrying value. If impairment exists, an adjustment is made to write the asset down to its fair value, and a loss is recorded as the difference between the carrying value and fair value. Fair values are determined based on quoted market values, discounted cash flows or internal and external appraisals, as applicable. Assets to be disposed of are carried at the lower of carrying value or estimated net realizable value. For the years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 there has not been any impairment of long-lived assets.
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at its inception. Operating lease right-of-use (“ROU“) assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As our lease does not provide an implicit interest rate, the Company used an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. As of September 30, 2021 and 2020, our ROU asset is included in prepaid expenses and other current assets and the lease obligations is included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets. As of September 30, 2021 and 2020, ROU asset of approximately $0 and $39,000, respectively, represents our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and the lease liabilities of approximately $0 and $39,000, respectively, represents our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease.
In accordance with FASB ASC 740, Income Taxes, the Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences or events that have been included in our consolidated financial statements and/or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are based upon the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of existing assets and liabilities and for loss and credit carryforwards using enacted tax rates expected to be in effect in the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax asset will not be realized.
The Company provides reserves for potential payments of tax to various tax authorities related to uncertain tax positions when management determines that it is more likely than not that a loss will be incurred related to these matters and the amount of the loss is reasonably determinable.
In accordance with FASB ASC 606, Revenue Recognition, the Company recognizes revenue through a five-step process: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) a performance obligation is satisfied.
The Company’s source of revenue is product sales. Contracts with customers contain a single performance obligation and the Company recognizes revenue from product sales when the Company has satisfied our performance obligation by transferring control of the product to the customers. Control of the product transfers to the customer upon shipment from the Company’s third-party warehouse.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of revenues includes product costs, warehousing, overhead allocation and royalty expenses.
Research and Development
The Company expenses internal and external research and development costs, including costs of funded research and development arrangements, in the period incurred.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with the guidance of FASB ASC Topic 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation (“FASB ASC Topic 718”), which requires all share-based payments be recognized in the consolidated financial statements based on their fair values. In accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718, the Company has elected to use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of options granted and recognizes the compensation cost of share-based awards on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of the award.
The determination of the fair value of share-based payment awards utilizing the Black-Scholes model is affected by the fair value of the common stock and a number of other assumptions, including expected volatility, expected life, risk-free interest rate and expected dividends. The expected life for awards uses the simplified method for all “plain vanilla” options, as defined in ASC 718-10-S99 and the contractual term for all other employee and non-employee awards. The risk-free interest rate assumption is based on observed interest rates appropriate for the terms of our awards. The dividend yield assumption is based on history and the expectation of paying no dividends. Stock-based compensation expense, when recognized in the consolidated financial statements, is based on awards that are ultimately expected to vest.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company measures both financial and nonfinancial assets and liabilities in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures , including those that are recognized or disclosed in the consolidated financial statements at fair value on a recurring basis. The standard created a fair value hierarchy which prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three broad levels as follows: Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities; Level 2 inputs are inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; and Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs that reflect the Company’s own views about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
At September 30, 2021 and 2020, the carrying amounts of cash, accounts payables and accrued expenses and other liabilities approximate fair value because of their short-term nature. The carrying amounts for the PPP Loan, if applicable, and the Convertible Notes approximate fair value because borrowing rates and term are similar to comparable market participants.
The Company accounts for its warrants and other derivative financial instruments as either equity or liabilities based upon the characteristics and provisions of each instrument, in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging. Warrants classified as equity are recorded at fair value as of the date of issuance on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets and no further adjustments to their valuation are made. Warrants classified as derivative liabilities and other derivative financial instruments that require separate accounting as liabilities are recorded on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets at their fair value on the date of issuance and will be revalued on each subsequent balance sheet date until such instruments are exercised or expire, with any changes in the fair value between reporting periods recorded as other income or expense. Management estimates the fair value of these liabilities using option pricing models and assumptions that are based on the individual characteristics of the warrants or instruments on the valuation date, as well as assumptions for future financings, expected volatility, expected life, yield, and risk-free interest rate.
Financial Statement Reclassification
Certain balances in the prior year consolidated financial statements have been reclassified for comparison purposes to conform to the presentation in the current period consolidated financial statements.
The Company evaluated all events or transactions through December 16, 2021, the date which these financial statements were issued. There were no material subsequent events (Note 15).
Going Concern Basis of Accounting
As reflected in the consolidated financial statements, the Company has an accumulated deficit, has suffered significant net losses and negative cash flows from operations, only recently commenced generating limited operating revenues, and has limited working capital. The continuation of the Company’s business as a going concern is dependent upon raising additional capital, the ability to successfully market and sell its product and eventually attaining and maintaining profitable operations. In particular, as of September 30, 2021, the Company will be required to raise additional capital, obtain alternative means of financial support, or both, in order to continue to fund operations, and therefore there is substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The Company expects to incur substantial expenses into the foreseeable future for the research, development and commercialization of its current and potential products. In addition, the Company will require additional financing in order to seek to license or acquire new assets, research and develop any potential patents and the related compounds, and obtain any further intellectual property that the Company may seek to acquire. Finally, some of our product candidates or the materials contained therein (such as the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (“APIs”) for our AC5® product line), are manufactured from facilities in areas impacted by the outbreak of the coronavirus, which could result in shortages due to ongoing efforts to address the outbreak. Historically, the Company has principally funded operations through debt borrowings, the issuance of convertible debt, and the issuance of units consisting of common stock and warrants. Provisions in the Securities Purchase Agreements that the Company entered into on February 20, 2017 (“2017 SPA”) and on June 28, 2018 (“2018 SPA”) restrict the Company’s ability to effect or enter into an agreement to effect any issuance by the Company or its subsidiary of Common Stock or securities convertible, exercisable or exchangeable for Common Stock (or a combination of units thereof) involving a Variable Rate Transaction (as defined in the 2017 SPA and 2018 SPA) including, but not limited to, an equity line of credit or “At-the-Market” financing facility until the three lead investors in the 2017 Financing and the institutional investors in the 2018 SPA collectively own less than 20% of the Series F
Warrants and the Series G Warrants purchased by them pursuant to the 2017 SPA and 2018 SPA, respectively. The 2021 SPA contains certain restrictions on our ability to conduct subsequent sales of our equity securities. In particular, we are prohibited from entering into or effecting a Variable Rate Transaction (as defined in the 2021 SPA) until February 11, 2022; provided, however, the Company may enter into and effect an at-the-market offering facility with the Placement Agent. The continued spread of coronavirus and uncertain market conditions may also limit the Company’s ability to access capital. If the Company is unable to obtain adequate capital, the Company may be required to reduce the scope, delay, or eliminate some or all of its planned activities. These conditions, in the aggregate, raise substantial doubt as to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from this uncertainty.